Dear 100 Hour Board,
I was just doing this tab for a cause thing, and it caused me to wonder, how many tabs can Chrome handle at one time?
-A guys with little else better to do than to open new tabs on his Chrome browser
A cursory Google search shows that Chrome's tab capacity is functionally limitless. It can handle far, far more tabs than you would ever have a reason to use. In fact, many of the hits for that Google search are for extensions that restrict your tab use, so there's that.
I rarely use more than three or four at a time (music, TweetDeck, and one or two tabs that I'm actually looking at). I have a hard time understanding why anyone would ever need more than that, unless it's just things you want to come back to later.
Dear A Guys,
I did a search similar to D.A.R.E.'s and found this 2-year-old Quora answer claiming at least 2000 (granted, those were all empty tabs with no website loaded).
If you're actually loading webpages, the answer will depend mainly on how much RAM your computer has, and the webpages in question. Certainly any modern computer should handle 50+ average pages with no issues.