I teach English at a Utah County high school, and my wife doesn't work. This means that I have some insight in answering your question, but it also means that I know that your question is a very complicated one, and your experience will depend on many factors.
First, you need to consider where in California you will be teaching? Your lifestyle will depend a great deal on where you live. Will you be teaching in a major metropolitan area? Will you be in a smaller suburban area? Will you be in a rural area? The biggest difference about location will be the cost of living, but it will also determine how large or small your school will be, what kind of student population you'll serve, and what you're facilities will be like. Since you're planning on teaching math, you should be able to find a job wherever you'd like to live. According to calteach.com, an excellent internet resource for anyone planning on teaching in California (I suggest you check it out), secondary math teachers are in need throughout the state, so you have more choice in where to live than other teacher candidates might. As you consider where you'd like to live, keep in mind that your classroom will reflect the community. Do you want to teach a diverse population? Do you want to be in the inner city? Do you want suburban students? Inner city schools are often the most in need of good teachers, but it's also very hard to attract teachers to these kinds of areas.
After you know where you will be teaching, find out your starting salary, and consider cost of living. The simple truth is that teachers don't make a lot of money, but they can make enough money to survive (depending on where you live). According to calteach.com, the average starting salary in California is $33,121, though there is legislation currently under consideration to set a minimum beginning salary of $34,000. That's nearly $10,000 more than starting salary in Utah, but you have to consider the cost of living, which in general is much higher in California than in Utah. Salaries are set by local school districts, so you'll have to investigate and find out what you'll make in a given district, then compare that to the cost of living. There are several cost of living calculators available on the web. Here's one that's free and gives you a pretty accurate picture of cost of living in specific cities across the country: http://www.bestplaces.net/html/cost_of_living.html
Also consider what kind of benefits your school district offers beyond salary.
I pay no premiums on my health insurance, and I receive excellent coverage. This saves a tremendous amount of money. Though my salary is extremely low, this benefit is something to consider in the overall financial picture. For example, my daughter had surgery last year. Over the duration of her illness she had many expensive lab tests and spent several nights in a hospital. If we had to pay for the surgery, tests, doctor visits, hospital stays, etc., out of pocket, it would have cost us nearly $10,000. With our health insurance, we paid $100. This kind of benefit isn't something that people normally consider in choosing a career, but it should definitely be a consideration.
There are some general expectations you should be aware of.
In offering general expectations, you need to know that these come from my experience, which may or may not be similar to your experience. Teaching is a very personal art; and, the community you teach in, the classes you teach, the subject area you teach, your administration, the colleagues you teach with, etc., can all affect your experience. Still, I think there are some things you will find in common.
If you want to teach well, you will work long hours.
As a new teacher, especially, teaching well will require spending lots of hours planning curriculum, grading papers, preparing units, etc. If you don't care how well you teach the workload is much less.
Your world will become enormous, while your wife's will shrink. Be sure to include her in your school life.
One of the greatest rewards of teaching is getting to know wonderful people. I really enjoy spending time with my colleagues and students. I teach over 200 students and work with about 70 other teachers, and they are each important to me. While my wife has made many new friends, she certainly doesn't interact with that many people weekly. It's been really important for me to share my new world with her. We go to school events together and she gets to know the people that I've told her about.
Teaching high school requires liking adolescents.
Don't teach because you love math. Teach because you love kids. You'll have students (lots of them) who hate math. Don't hold that against them. Instead, find ways to reach them and affect them and make them better people. They'll love you for it (even if they never do understand when to use the quadratic equation).
I hope I've given you some insight. In short, your experience will be rewarding, even if there's little food on the shelves. It's possible to live the life of a teacher and have a spouse at home, but it requires sacrifice. If you're willing to make the sacrifice, God bless you.