"When you get a little older, you'll see how easy it is to become lured by the female of the species." - 1960's Batman TV show
Question #25781 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

This is in reference to Board Question #25544.

Yes, it is very possible to be dehydrated while retaining water. When you retain fluid in your system, it is in the tissues, and therefore not accessible to your body.

Thus, it is possible to have kidney failure (due to hydration) while retaining several pounds of water. Usually this is caused by a disease such as cirrhosis of the liver, but it is definitely something that I have seen happen.

Hope that helps!


Question #25728 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Help! I like to go out with a lot of different people. Turns out that three of the guys who have asked me out recently are moving in together this fall. I'm interested enough in two of them to get to know them better (i.e. continue to go on dates, chat on the phone, etc, and this interest seems to be reciprocated), but not enough at this point to date either exclusively. Obviously they might not be too happy with this arrangement when they discover they're after the same girl.

I'd hate to hurt people's feelings. How do I avoid being a player? Is it too late for that? What's the best way to behave in this situation? Sorry, that's three questions. Feel free to pick one to answer.

-Sticky Situation

A: Dear Sticky Situation,

[reads] Feel free to pick one to answer.

Hm. Ok.

Is it too late for that? No.



A little challenge never hurt anyone. Competition is good. If you're not holding hands/kissing either of them and you're just getting to know them, I think you're fine. You probably should make sure they both know about your interest in the other. Don't hide it. That could get way awkward. Let them know what they're up against so that they can make the decision too as to whether or not they want to persue you. My guess is that it will naturally work out the way it should.

- Lavish
Question #25727 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Do any of you have any suggestions for a place in Provo where I can get nice wedding invitaions inexpensively?

- On a tight budget

A: Dear tight budget,

We got our invitations done at Reflections of Elegance by PG Printers. It's not exactly in Provo, but Pleasant Grove isn't that far away. We got something simple, we liked how it looked, and we liked the price. One thing I would suggest though, is to go to utahweddings.com and look at the different businesses they list under invitations and announcements. For a lot of the businesses (including PG Printers), they offer a 10% discount or more if you show a Utah Weddings card or just print out the page online offering the discount. I wish I had known about this so I could've gotten an even better deal on our announcements.

-Mrs. X
A: Dear On a tight budget,

Ma and I made our own. Yes, it sounds tacky, but they came out rather nicely. Costco got us some cheap reprints of the photo. Expedx in Orem was great for the cardstock, vellum, and envelopes. Walmart had the ribbon, glue sticks, and a hole puncher. We made a master copy of the text and had Kinkos photocopy it onto all the vellum and then had them cut the vellum and cardstock to size.

After a few practice invitations, we had the process down. A few movies later over the course of a couple weeks and we were done. The most expensive part was the postage.

So look around at some craft shops and see what they have for examples of invitations/announcements and use your imagination.

Or you could have a friend use Photoshop to add a white column on the end of a picture and then put the words on that and have Costco print them for you. Then all you need is a few slips of vellum with invitations to the sealing for those select few and you are good to go.

-Pa Grape
Question #25725 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

How would I go about turning myself into a grain of puffed rice or a grain of crispy rice? Could I do it at home, or would I need special equipment found only in a factory?

- An Ordinary Grain of White Rice, Uncooked

A: Dear ordinary,

Check out this article describing how puffed grain cereal is made. http://home.howstuffworks.com/question393.htm To make puffed rice, you pop it, kind of like popping popcorn, except with rice you need to steam it first to give it moisture. You can oil-pop it or oven-pop it (how Rice Krispies are made). What equipment do you need? This website http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2005/GeorgePayyapilli.shtml says "Cereal puffing requires basically two pieces of equipment, a container that is sealable, heatable, and may be opened quickly and something to heat the container, like a torch." I don't know that I'd want to use a torch in my kitchen, but maybe if you're creative you can think of some things around the house to puff your rice with. Maybe you could just do it in a pot on your stove. I don't know if that will get you the required pressure to puff yourself (you need about 200 psi). Whatever you do, just be careful!

-Wilhelmina Wafflewitz
Question #25724 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What, exactly, happens to me between the time at which I am submitted, and the time at which I am posted, 100 hours later? In other words, who sees me, do board writers discuss me before answering me, etc.?

- This Question

PS-Perhaps you could expand your answer by shedding some light on what happens to some of my more complicated brothers and sisters during that time, too.

A: Dear Question,

We actually just added a section of the Board that answers this. In the left hand column of your browser is the "About Us" link. If you click on it and then "Behind the Board" (a subcategory of the "About Us" section), you can see exactly what happens to a question once it's submitted.

- Lavish
Question #25720 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Who decided the order that the letters in our Latin alphabet are in? Why is "a" first? Was it completely arbitrary?

- abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

A: Dear the alphabet,

The Latin alphabet was a derivation from the Greek alphabet. Look closely and you can see a lot of similarities.

But why does the Greek alphabet go in that particular sequence? Well, that's the general order that the Phoenician alphabet, from which it derived, was in. The correlation isn't quite as clear as that in the Latin and Greek alphabets, but you can see it if you look closely.

But why is the Phoenician alphabet in that particular sequence? That's just the way they put it together. I wish I had a better explanation for you than that, but that's all there is.

While we're here, though, take a look at the evolution of various alphabets and see if you can't see the basic order remain the same throughout.

Neat, huh?

- Optimistic.
Question #25717 posted on 06/12/2006 3:02 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I have a friend on a mission. He's been out for almost a year. We dated before he left, but both decided to break up and have no plans of getting back together when he's returned. We're still friends... I write him on a semi-regular basis, but nothing romantic or otherwise trying to steer him in any direction.

Lately it seems like at least half the guys around campus look just like him... hair color, style, glasses, heighth, build, etc., and I find myself thinking, "Wait a second! Is that.....???" He did not go to BYU before mission, and I have no doubts that he is still out, but sheesh! This is getting nutsy... yesterday a fellow walked past my window with his significant other, and he even moved like how my friend does.

I know I'm not crazy, but this is just...WIERD!
Any help, explanations, similar experiences, etc? I am definitely NOT waiting for him, even subconsciously. Every other guy around here just looks like him!

Is this usual? I doubt it, but... to me, this is odd! Help?

Mind Games

A: Dear Mind Games,

No, I don't think this is too unusual. If he's the last guy you dated, then he might still be on your mind a bit, even unconsciously. When I'm interested in a guy, similar things will happen and I'll start thinking I see or hear his name everywhere. I don't think it these experiences necessarily "mean" anything terribly deep or significant. I imagine that if you started dating someone else, they would go away.

- Katya
A: Dear Mind Games,

Yeah...that's happened to me before, too. It'll go away, though.

And if not, you can get some really dark sunglasses and just not look at anyone on campus.

Question #25716 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I fell in love with a friend a few years back and as of a recent gathering told him discreetly. He was kind about the topic and although not attached is not looking right now.
I have been trying to stop thinking about him (thinking about other things, people, etc.), to try to "get over this" etc., but to no avail. Recently, it has been distracting me in classes and plays miniscule roles in dreams, even.

How do I get past this? I don't know what to do anymore.

Lovestruck and Unhappy

A: Dear Lovestruck and CAN be happy,

I feel for you situation. In addition, we feel that eliminating any thoughts about this person will help. I have found, though, the opposite to be more helpful in these situations.

Before I answer your question, I would also refer you to a similar question I answered(Board Question #25547). I don't know about you, but I found in my life that it is harder to eliminate thoughts of a person by telling myself that I can't have them, at all. The more we try to make ourselves eliminate the thoughts, the more it seems to enter our mind. I would suggest a different strategy: accept the fact that you will have thoughts, and dreams, about this guy. You were in love with him and it is only expected to have these troubles. I think you will find that as you except this fact the less you will think of him.

Now, if you are a BYU student, I would suggest something else: the Counseling and Career Center (422-3035). I only suggest this because it is starting to interfere with your day to day routine. They have a great staff there and I know that they can help you get a better grasp of your situation.

A lot of times, we want a quick fix to our problems. In these cases, however, there is rarely remedy that will quickly take the problem away. This will take time, but your heart will mend and you will be back to your old cheerful self. Good luck!

Question #25715 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Random riddle:

A man is walking on the beach,
just after taking a long swim in his clothes. He sees a restaurant on the beach.
He walks into the restaurant and gets seated. He looks at the menu and orders
seagull soup. The waitress brings out the soup, he takes one bite, realizes
something & runs out onto the road and gets killed.

The question is: why did he freak out?

- my name here

A: Dear my name here,

Sigh...it's one of these riddles again, eh? I hate this kind; it just seems so unfair to not provide the crucial backstory. (Unless, of course, one is doing it for the sake of humor, as in Woody Allen's comedic story "Match Wits With Inspector Ford," which can be found in Without Feathers.)

In any case, I don't want to reveal the answer to all our poor unsuspecting readers, who may want to figure it out on their own (good luck...) so I'll just send you to this Yahoo! Answers page. Answers 10, 11, and 21 are the most accurate.

(And yes, yes, I know that Yahoo! Answers is beneath us, but, hey, if they've got the info, they're fair game for a reference.)


PS: If you are the same person who asked that Yahoo! Answers question, and are just testing the omnipotent powers of the 100 Hour Board, you must be laughing your head off right now. Well, laugh away, friend: at least you've got an answer.
Question #25711 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I was curious about any sources you may know of to help me study for the GRE. Anything available online or in book form (preferably not something I have to purchase...I know I am cheap). I was especially interested in anything that will help with my vocab.

Thanks so much for all of your help!

A: Dear Thanks,

I've never taken the GRE or studied to take the GRE, but in preparing for the ACT, I came across this website that has free online test prep. I really liked it. I could get online and do it when I felt like it, and I could choose to have it email me to remind me to work on it. It has courses for GRE prep as well as just a vocabulary builder. The website is http://number2.com/.

-Wilhelmina Wafflewitz
A: Dear Thanks,
I'm studying for the GRE too. Well, studying is such a misleading gerund. I went and bought a book though, and I must say that it is the cheapest option you can have, compared to taking the GRE prep course for a few hundred dollars. The book is a great study too, so just suck it up and purchase it. I think you'll be much happier that you did!
Question #25709 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What do ya'll do for sore throats? Any cough drops that work wonderfully?

A: Dear aching,

I gave up on most forms of cough drops a while ago and now suck on them for flavor or Vit C content sometimes. I recommend straight chicken broth AKA 99 cents a can at Macey's, and a nice little dissolvable pill that looks like chewable Vit C called Airborne. Besides that, sorbet, SLEEP!!!!!, yogurt with live and active cultures any flavor or brand, and water all help.

Also, this may sound a little wierd, but part of having a sort throat is a lack of sodium in your diet, and so sucking on salty stuff (personally, when a sore throat gets bad, I pop a jar of green olives) helps. It's the same effect as a salt water gargle except that you tend to swallow them, and I like the taste!:)

Trying not to get sick right now... why am I answering at 2:30 AM?

I must be ?

A: Dear Aching:

See also Board Question #19490.


A: Dear aching,

Ok, I know Mojoschmoe knows her stuff and all and she gave the smart answer, but... Luden's Throat Drops are by far the best tasting. Try the berry ones. They taste like candy. Mmm...

- Lavish
Question #25708 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I heard once that all (or most) christian churches either come from the Catholic church or the LDS church. Does anyone know if that is true? Is there a list out there that gives what churches broke off from what that could verify anything? Thanks.
Trying to check my facts.

A: Dear fact-checker,

Wikipedia has a pretty good chart of the history of Christianity in its main Christianity article. One of the important things to note is that the Eastern Orthodox doesn't claim to have split off from the Roman Catholic Church. Rather, both consider themselves to be the true Christian church which can trace its authority through an unbroken line back to Christ and the Apostles.

Another issue is that the LDS Church is not the only "resorationist" Church. Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses, among others, trace their origins to modern-day restorations of the Early Christian Church, and not to a schism or split from any contemporary Christian church. (And certainly not from Mormonism!)

So, I'm going to have to say that your "fact" is based on a major oversimplification of the history of Christianity.

- Katya
Question #25707 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

One of my friends is curently on a mission. In a recent letter from him, I was reminded of our love for Planters Cheez Balls. Did the company stop making these, or am I not looking hard enough to find them? I would love to send him a can, but I don't know where to look. Can you help me?

- Hungry for Cheez Balls

A: Dear Hungry,
Cheez Balls were produced by Kraft. However, I cannot find any mention of them on their brand web site, so you are probably out of luck.
That's the way of supply and demand,
-ABC 123
Question #25706 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

is there a quicker way to get from UVRMC to the Gold's Gym in Orem than by going up state street or over to University Parkway??
- clueless driver

A: Dear clueless driver,

Here's the fastest way I have found.
  1. Head north on State Street until you reach Macey's
  2. Turn right on 1720 N (the road just north of Macey's)
  3. Take the first right onto Carterville Road and go up the steep hill
  4. Follow that north past the bridge that goes over University Parkway
  5. Turn left onto 1000 East (should be your first left) which will wrap around near Universit Parkway and then up behind Gold's Gym
  6. Follow that as it hooks left and turns into 1200 S and brings you right up to Gold's Gym's parking lot.
Hope that helps you out! I love that little shortcut.

Question #25703 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Do you have suggestions for saying food prayers? It seems like everytime I bless the food, "please bless it that it will strengthen and nourish our bodies" slips out before I can stop it! And when I try to say anything else, all I can think of is that that particular phrase seems to cover everything. So I need some ideas to get me out of the rut. Also, where did that phrase even come from? I swear everyone says it. Can it be traced to its origins?

- The Ramiumtum

A: Dear Ramiumtum,

I know what you mean; the set phrase "nourish and strengthen" does get a little old (or even ironic when the food involved isn't very healthy to begin with). You can always expand the blessing on the food to be a more general prayer of thanksgiving. You can give thanks for the food, the financial means to pay for it, the health it provides, the opportunity to gather for a meal, etc. Oh, and when in doubt, pray for the missionaries.

As far as where it originated goes, I think it would be pretty hard to set down since Mormon prayers are usually oral (not written) and oral language is much harder to document than written language is.

- Katya
Question #25700 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Re: Board Question #25542

Dear Bored Engineer,

No offense to Mojoschmoe (as I know these things are highly subjective), but Center Street Musical Theater definitely makes my top-two list of the worst theater I have ever seen in my life (which is a lot of theater, I go all of the time). I have two friends that have also been to a show there. Both of them hated it. We were in awe of just how awful it was; I was truly impressed with their utter cluelessness as pertaining to all things theatrical (especially that guy that allegedly has a PhD in voice, he must have gone to the University of Phoenix--seriously, I was aghast).

Now, bear in mind that I am somewhat of a drama/music snob (as are my friends, but to a lesser extent), so I am likely more critical than you are... and I recognize that there are probably other people that enjoy CSMT's productions . That is fine with me, it is their prerogative and I mean them no disrespect. Nevertheless, having participated in community theater a lot myself, I do not have unrealistically high expectations for what a theater like CSMT should be able to put together; and even by low-grade community theater standards, CSMT is as rock-bottom as you will ever find.

I would like to commend them for occasionally trying to put together a live orchestra. The result is atrocious, but I admire the effort. I am sure people have a great time being in their shows, and there are likely a few talented people that I am shortchanging in this rather scathing review as I never happened to see them perform. Alas, 'twas not to be (and never will, I would not go to another show there for free).

Also, do not waste your time with the dinner/show deal. When I tried it, it was a paper plate with take-out Chinese.

I know this all sounds rather harsh, but I wanted to make sure that Bored Engineer had one more honest opinion to help in the decision. I would never advise a friend to waste their money on CSMT.

- And the Tony does NOT go to CSMT...

A: Dear Don't Go:

Dude, no offense taken. To each his own. I do think it depends on what show they're putting on and the actors they have. But I do agree with the orchestra. . .


Question #25697 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Is it just me, or is the wilk's Game center small? When it is serving 20,000+ students and a group of 500 would def. fill it up pretty well.

- Jason Jackson, who's only been there once with a private party

A: Dear Jason,

No, I think it's small, too.

A: Dear Jason Jackson,

It is small. However, when considering the fact that there are several other venues in the Provo area, it wasn't necessary to provide a facility large enough for all of their 20,000+ students.

Question #25691 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I am studying for the CPA exam and my best friend is studying for the Bar exam. We have a friendly fight going on over whose test is more difficult. The Bar takes two days to take and the CPA has four sections. Both of us are taking months-long review courses that are comprehensive in nature. What say ye: which is harder?

- future accountant

A: Dear FA,

It would seem there are others who want to know as well. This study seems to be what you were looking for.

The study was conducted by two professors from Georgia Southwestern State University. They questioned people who had recently taken both the CPA exam and the Bar exam. The questions covered the following areas:

1. Breadth of knowledge actually tested on the examinations
2. Complexity of questions tested on the examinations
3. Difficulty of understand topics actually tested on the examinations
4. Degree of security under which the examinations were given
5. Time pressure under which the examinations were given
6. Use of multiple-choice questions
7. Total amount of time permitted for the examinations
8. Use of intentionally devious or tricky questions
9. Overall difficulty of each exam

I won't spoil the read for you, but if you want to know the results, just scroll down to Conclusions and Implications for Accounting Education. I've known friends, ward members and associates that have taken both and this just might be my own opinion - but they looked equally miserable. Might be an example of which is the greater of two evils. Good luck - your probably gonna need it. :)

I didn't break it, it was like that when I got here,

-the newbie
Question #25690 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Will I ever be King?

- Prince Charles, forevermore

A: Dear Charly,

I doubt it. Personally, I expect that when your mum dies or abdicates the throne, she will do it with the condition that you immediatly abdicate to Prince William. I mean, there are so many issues with your divorce and taking of a consort... I don't think you'll ever have the credibility to really be the king.

Of course, I also think your son will be known as "Prince William the Big Teethed" which is better than the stereotypical British dental work.

Regardless, I think your mum will be in charge, then you will just let it roll down to William. Of course, that would require William to quit drinking and partying, find a decent wife (unlike Camilla), and start acting like a king/prince... not just a sex symbol (shudder).

That is all.

Sir Horatio, Duke of Nottingham
A: Dear Princey,

I also do not believe you will truly ascend to the throne. By all accounts it looks like Wills is being groomed for the job and he certainly has a better face for the public; as we all know, politics is perception.

He is also quite a dish, even if he is a sex symbol, as the Duke claimed...

Question #25689 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Is Brad Pitt the hottest man alive?

- Angelina

A: Dear Angie,

No, Mr. Nike is.

I'm sorry, I couldn't resist.

A: Dear Angelina,


I know of at least two guys, at BYU alone, who are hotter than Brad Pitt.

A: Dear A,

If you're talking to Angeline Jolie, than maybe. If not, then no. I know of many guys who... righteousness makes guys hot no matter what else is going for them. Brad Pitt may be genetically cute, but... as for the rest? Adultery and fornication isn't pretty whether it's looked past or not when it was first committed.

I'd rather have a man who is clean before the Lord any day over a man who's literally hot.

Practical and wants a temple man,
The Last Line
A: Dear Angelina,

No. Not even close.

According to imdb , Brad Pitt was born in Oklahoma, raised in Missouri, and now lives in California. Although I'm sure he has traveled all over the world for his career I doubt he has ever been to El Azizia, Libya which appears to be the hottest place on earth. I would imagine that a man there, or one in Death Valley (which comes in at a close second), would be the hottest man alive. Besides that, with the money he makes, I'd imagine that he goes from one air conditioned place to the next.

- Lavish
Question #25688 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Where did Jerusha Hess get her name?

- Napoleon

A: Dear Napoleon,

"Jerusha" is a Biblical name. (Jerusha was the wife of King Uzziah.) It means "possession" in Hebrew.

"Hess" is a Germanic surname which originated with people from the Hesse region of Germany. ("Hess" is Jerusha's married name, so technically she got it from her husband.)

- Katya
Question #25687 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What percentage of the U.S. population is gay or lesbian? I figure it's a lot smaller than one would expect since there is so much attention focused on the matter.

- numberz

A: Dear numberz,

See Board Question #22224.

- the librarian
Question #25686 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Do you think there will be a cure for cancer in our lifetimes? I read something recently that half of all Americans would get some form of cancer in their lives. This is just appalling to me. As I am not a doctor or scientist and don't have a lot of money to donate, what can I do to help with the cancer epidemic? And, finally, how much money is spent on worldwide cancer research as opposed to AIDS research? I know that AIDS is a terrible disease but it seems like it can be "stopped" much more easily than cancer, which strikes seemingly at random. Gracias for the help.

- History of family cancer

A: Dear History,

I think that if we don't have a cure for cancer, we will get really close to it. Just this past week, the FDA approved a vaccine for Cervical Cancer (note: Cervical cancer is caused by a virus, unlike other forms of cancer. See HERE for more).

Aside from making donations, you could try participating in the local fundraising events for cancer. For example, you could help in the organization of the Rex Lee Run that occurs every year at BYU (see Cancer Reseach Center website).

I found on the National Cancer Institutes website information about their budget. For the year 2007, they are expected to have a budget of about $4.75 billion. In comparison, the National Institute of Health (NIH) appropiated nearly $2.9 billion for AIDS research (see their website). These two organizations are some of the largest and are funded by the government. I believe it gives an adequate comparison of how much is being dedicated to either.

Question #25685 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What is the longest actual word that can be typed using just one hand on the keyboard? For example, I can type the name "Steve" using just the keys that my left hand is supposed to touch when typing. So, I guess I am saying what is the longest word that can be typed using the letters QWERTASDFGZXCVB on one hand and YUIOPHJKLNM on the other? Thanks.

- 70wpm

A: Dear 70wpm,

See Board Question #15353.

- the librarian
Question #25684 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

My fiance just got a new job where we found out that he will be making 35 thousand a year for probably at least the next 5 years. I don't know anything about money really, only that my dad makes significantly more and so I'm used to a pampered life. So I'm afraid that we're going to be poor. I know that I shouldn't expect him to make as much as my dad right off, except that he's quite content with the career he has right now so there's really no significant income growth potential. Since I really don't know that much about money, I need to know if this is an okay amount or if I should definitely plan on working, even after we have kids. We live in Mesa, if that helps.

A: lets call you, "michelle".

dear michelle,

well, money can be sticky. there is a good book out there that i'm reading right now called 'rich dad, poor dad' that goes over basic financial skills. my biggest take away so far is this: don't over spend!

people in the lower classes (read: the not rich) have a tendency to spend money as they get it. christmas bonus? great! i can fly everyone out for the new pool i'll put in. salary bump? time to get a house! the problem is our eyes are much bigger than our wallets.

now, i have a friend in somewhat the same situation as yourself, michelle, except they're "5 years later." they have a wonderful almost-2-years-old boy and another coming along shortly. he teaches, enough said. she has had to keep a job at a bank this whole time (minus maternity leave). they have to scrimp and scrounge for everything they put money into, especially with another on the way. but, not only have they been able to absolve previous debts, they also have a nice duplex home that i admire. they are not rich, but they are money wise and make sure to keep on top of their finances.

if you combine saving your money rather than spending before the big expenses come (children, house payments, etc.) and being smart with your finances, you *should* be able to live somewhat comfortably. do not expect to be pampered, which you appear to realize and (hopefully) accept. anticipate working, but also plan to make sure you put as much aside as possible now so that when the future comes, you can be ready for it.

get money smart. read books and talk to people to get a feel for what works for them. you might have to forego purchasing a house, new car, etc. for a span of time.

now, for the number guesstimating: your husband is making ~$17/hr, or ~$2700 a month. lob off ~$621 in taxes, and you have $2079. take out your expenses: housing (~$500, say), food (~$200), gas for a car (~$100, multiply by number of cars) plus insurance (~$100?, same multiplier), and you get ~$900 after tithing (based on gross, assuming one car). if you can stop here, this means you have $900 to work with a month right now. this excludes any other expected and unexpected expenses that i cannot think of off the top of my head right now.

so, what will you do with that? here's my hint: a little struggle and sacrifice now to prepare for your future together could mean a big difference later on, including the possibility of you not having to work. don't buy a new car yet, and certainly don't go for a new house.

good luck, michelle. i'm just learning this myself, but a lot of it makes sense and i hope it's not too late for me to change my financial habits and get ready for my future.

and, on that note, my apologies to any accountants and financial advisors. i am, after all,

A: Dear "Michelle,"

Ooh I love money and budgeting and what not. Granted, I never balance my own checkbook but I think people should.

I agree with ignorant on all of his points but I think the numbers may be a little different. That may not matter a whole lot but... I'm seeing it more like this.

$35,000 over 12 months breaks down to $2,917ish.

Tax : Tax is going to be more. I make less than that and I've found 26% of every paycheck goes to taxes. And no, I'm not bitter. Anyway, so approximately $758 will go to taxes every month. That leaves you with $2159.

Tithing : Subtract tithing, you're left with $1867. Not as much as you'd think, huh.

Housing : Now I did a little bit of Googling and found that the average price in Mesa, AZ for a 1 bedroom apartment in 2006 is $583/month. The average for a 2 bedroom is $777/month. That's for an apartment . Let's assume you go with the one bedroom. Not including any utilities you're down to $1284.

Car Insurance : According to CNN , the average insurance price is $905, I'd assume for the year. (That be... $425/6 months... Yeah, that's about right...) Ok. So that's about $75/month. Hm. Honestly, I'd guess more than that. AZ is more expensive for insurance than UT. Regardless though, you're down to $1209.

Cellphone : If you have a family plan, you'll spend, what like... $75/month? So... $1134.

Groceries : I think $200 sounds about right... $934.

Gas : I asked around and it seems like the average weekly gas price is about $30. Obviously that'll vary. If you're not working, you won't drive as much. If you have two cars, you may drive more. Also, gas is probably more in AZ. Regardless, let's plan about $120/month ( minimum , I'd say). Leaves you with $814. For the rest of the month.

Now keep in mind, this isn't including utilities, health insurance, renter's/home insurance, life insurance, car payments, entertainment, etc. I don't know. Do you have any close friends that you could talk to about how much they're paying there? I think it's important to follow ignorant's advice. Be smart with your money. You know a lot better than we do what expenses you have. Make a budget and stick to it.

Personally, I think that if you don't have kids you should be working unless you're going to school still or something. It'll give you more money and a chance to try things out with bugeting in the beginning of your marriage.

- Lavish
Question #25683 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Where does the practice of shaving legs come from? When and where did it begin and why does it only apply to women?

- Shaving is for sheep

A: Dear Shaving is for sheep,

For info on the history of shaving (and a really bizarre picture), see Board Question #18201, or go directly to http://www.quikshave.com/timeline.htm (but you'll miss the bizarre picture).

One of our readers also gave an interesting explanation in Board Question #6955.

As for why leg shaving is generally considered a womanly practice, the short answer is that Western culture just has this idea that it is beautiful for women to be hairless. However, if you'd like opinions on the subject of guys shaving, see Board Question #2223, Board Question #9642, Board Question #20792, and Board Question #17165. I asked one of them. See if you can figure out which one.

A: Dear shaving is for sheep,

Actually, I believe that shearing is for sheep.

- Katya
Question #25682 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Do gentlemen really prefer blondes?

- Sultry brunette

A: Dear Sultry?

Not this one.

That is all.

A: Dear Brunnette,

You know, as I think of it, I really doesn't matter. Although, I will admit that blonde hair will often draw more attention and I don't know why that is.

A: Dear Sultry,

Sure hope not...

- Lavish
A: Dear Sultry Brunette,

If they do, they are mistaken. They should prefer redheads.

- de novo -
A: Dear sultry,

According to a recent study, you might be in luck. Researchers showed 1500 men pictures of one model, digitally altered to appear to appear as a blonde, a brunette, and a redhead. Fifty-one percent of the men said that they felt the brunette was more attractive than the blonde was. Furthermore, nearly two-thirds of those surveyed said the brunette appeared stable and competent, while the blonde appeared needy and lacking in independence.

Apparently men aren't merely looking for a gorgeous face, but rather "brains and sophistication which are most often associated with brunettes." You can read the full text of the article I found here.

In case you were curious, the men surveyed tended to describe the personality of the red-headed model as intelligent, fiery, temperamental, and neurotic.

- Optimistic.
Question #25681 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

People are always talking about Type A people, and occasionally Type B. I've come to learn just from social context that a Type A person is very detailed, controlling, and kind of OCD. I'm guessing these "types" had to come from some source of origin, and they've probably become convoluted along the way as the "laymen" have adapted them to their own understandings. My question is, what is the original source? Do these types come from some psychological research or a self-help book? And I'm assuming there are more than two. What are the others and what are the real definitions of them all?

- Sure hope I'm not a Type A

A: Dear You can find out,

Before I answer your question, I found a site that will help to determine what type of personality you are. You can go here to try it out.

Now, a little history behind these different personalities. They were originally created by Meyer Friedman and his co-workers in the 1950's. They were trying to determine if there were certain types of people more likely to have coronary heart disease (CHD). To find more information about it, you can see it all at Wikipedia.

A: Dear hope your not type A,

As Resilient mentioned, Meyer Friedman, a cardiologist, performed the original study, along with another cardiologist named Ray Rosenman. They were trying to find a correlation between certain personality characteristics and heart disease and they did find some correlation. However, their findings have not been replicated, probably due to problems with the original study. From Faster, by James Gleick:
Indeed, the study that started it all--Friedman and Rosenman's "Association of Specific Overt Behavior Pattern with Blood and Cardiovascular Findings"--appears to have been a wildly flawed piece of research. It used a small sample--eighty-three people (all men) in what was then called "Group A." The selection process was neither random nor blind. White-collar male employees of large businesses were rounded up by acquaintances of Friedman and Rosenman on a subjective basis--they fit the type. The doctor further sorted the subjects by interviewing them personally and observing their appearance and behavior. Did a man gesture rapidly, clench his teeth, or exhibit a "general air of impatience"? If so, he was chosen. It seems never to have occurred to these experienced cardiologists that they might have been consciously or unconsciously selecting people whose physique indicated excess weight or other markers for incipient heart disease. The doctors' own data show that the final Group A drank more, smoked more, and weighed more than Group B. But the authors dismissed these factors, asserting, astonishingly, that there was no association between heart disease and cigarette smoking.

In the years since, researchers have never settled on a reliable method for identifying Type A people, though not for want of trying. Humans are not reliable witnesses to their own impatience. Researchers have employed questionnaires like the Jenkins Activity Survey, and they have used catalogues of grimaces and frowns--Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System, for example, or the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory. In the end, nothing conclusive emerges. Some studies have found Type A people to have lower blood pressure. The sedentary and obese have cardiac difficulties of their own.
So the original groups were "Group A" - the visibly impatient (and often obese) and "Group B" - the control group. Since the study hasn't been successfully replicated, there's no firm scientific definition of either group, even though the stereotypical idea of a "Type A" person is still alive and well in popular culture.

For more information, I recommend reading the entire second chapter ("Life as Type A") of Gleick's book. (Actually I recommend the entire book, if you've a mind.) His book also includes references to other "Type A" studies.

- Katya
Question #25679 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Today something eerie happened. It doesn't help that it is 6/06/06 today. I'd like The Omniscient Board's help with analyzing this strange phenomenon.

There are three parts to my story, of increasing eerieness:

Ok, so I left my house at about 8:33 and got to work at 9:02. Before leaving the house I checked my Gmail (I'd guess this happened at 8:28), and then logged out. When I arrived at work, I... well, I worked. Data entry. Then, at about 10:55, I logged onto my Gmail to check again. Lo and behold, I had a new message. BUT IT WAS FROM MYSELF. No joke. I had an email to myself from my own Gmail account... and the timestamp on it said 8:48 AM. But... at 8:48 I was in the car! Nowhere near a computer!

So I opened the email, and the timestamp inside it said 9:48 AM, not 8:48. The hour difference couldn't be a time zone malfunction, because as far as I know there are no "time zone" settings in Gmail. And even if they are, I used to be in Utah (which is 2 hours different than my current location (Virginia), not 1).

What did this mysterious email even SAY, you ask? Well, this is the part I especially need your skills to decipher. The subject of the email was "1545453" and the message body said only "969" (both without quotes).

What does it all mean???

- Chris

A: Dear Chris,

I believe that these events in your life mean several things. I am listing these in no particular order:

- It is time to change your sheets
- Maybe it is time to ask that cute girl out in your ward
- Maybe I need to change my socks
- Perhaps there is a certain theorem of mathematics that you or I need to solve within our life time
- I don't need to ask any cute girl out - I already did
- Maybe we are both getting really tired and need to get that needed rest

A: Dear Chris,

How weird. I had the same thing happen to me on the 5th. I signed out of Gmail and headed off to work. When I got to work I had received an email from myself, Subject: 586876 - Body:5556. I thought it might be a phone number, which apparently belongs to a cell phone in Flint, Michigan. But your's wouldn't have a valid area code.

Therefore, I can only assume that the GoogleNet has become self-aware. It is carefully probing its abilities by sending confusing emails to us mere humans. It will only be a matter of time before SkyNet attacks. We need to prepare now for the coming onslaught of assassin machines from the future. SOMEONE FIND JOHN CONNOR!

umm.. err.. wait, maybe that's Terminator. Well, let's just hope that our new Sentient Google Overlord obeys the company motto...

- Curious Physics Minor
Question #25678 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,
Why are guys always rubbing their chests? When you're sitting in class, you can pretty much guarantee that when a guy stretches, he will lean back, extend his arms, and then while his chest is still puffed out, he will sort of stroke his chest! I think it's so weird! Or when they're just walking around, you'll see guys rub their chest periodically. Are they checking to see what's there? Is it supposed to turn girls on? I'm completely stymied. While we're on sort of the same topic, why do guys feel like it's ok to scratch themselves and/or adjust themselves right out in public view? I realize it may be necessary but that's no excuse for being indiscreet.
- the Jabberwocky

A: Dear Jabberwocky,

I never really took notice of this, but after reading your question I began to notice it more often. I even started noticing it with my self. Now, I really don't know why men do it but I have several theories.

During the course of puberty, there are several physical changes in men including a more pronounced chest. I believe that rubbing of the chest reaffirms for men the fact that they are growing and that they are masculine. In addition, as men work out and lift weights, their chests become more pronounced and they, in a sense, want to show their masculinity. And it appears to be working, especially since you are writing this question. Even though you don't understand the reason for it, you noticed the fact that they were rubbing their chests.

Another thought to this might be the idea that men are just portraying an instinctual behavior by rubbing their chests. Men want to prove their masculinity in an attempt to attract and find their mate. This is done in other species and animal life. Men are just following the same. An example of this behavior can be found at this website.

As for men adjusting themselves in public, I don't agree with that. Yes, it does become uncomfortable at times but that does not account for politeness and general public etiquette.

Well, I am glad that I was able to give you a overview of men behavior. I know that it doesn't make much sense at times, but neither does women's behavior.

Question #25675 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

My Dad is flying over from England at the end of this month to visit me for a couple of weeks. In the last ten years I believe he made a brief trip to SLC but ventured no further into Utah Valley.

Any suggestions of what he needs to experience while he is here?

- Pippolotus

A: Dear Pippy,

Well, there are the usual things: Temple Square, the Y, things like that. He might also enjoy seeing the new Joseph Smith movie in SLC, Provo Canyon (Mr. Nike and I took a picnic up there today and IT. IS. GORGEOUS right now), the Provo river trail if you like walking, Thanksgiving Point...I guess I think of a lot of nature stuff.

But really, I think it will depend on what he likes to do. I can't think of much else quintessential stuff he NEEDS to see or anything, but there's certainly plenty to keep one's interest. He will probably be way more interested in seeing you, anyway. I hope you enjoy your time with your dad!

Question #25673 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear Horatio,

I was surprised to see you sign your name as "Horatio the Qatari" on Board Question #25563 today, because I live in Qatar! So, tell me, assuming that you have lived in Qatar, when and how long did you live here? Did you like living here? Anything you want to say about it? I was really surprised because hardly anyone even knows where it is, making it awkward when i explain where I live to people in the States. Well, shukran!

- Diva in Doha

A: Dear Doha Diva,

If you're there right now... I feel sorry for you. Doha in the Summer is like living inside a hair dryer. I ain't never felt something that hot!

I have never "lived" in Doha, but I am currently working on a contract which took me to Qatar. So, when I responded to "Bored in Yemen" (just in case you didn't understand his transliterated Arabic), I decided to refer to the other Gulf country which I knew.

So, I have spent some time in Qatar, but never really "lived" there. I have lived through a dust storm, if that is good enough. I have also been a visitor at the Doha Ward.

I hope you are enjoying the opportunity to live there, if not the weather. I'm looking forward to returning to Doha in the near future.

That is all.

Horatio... An American Werewolf in Doha
A: Dear Diva in Doha,

My cousins lived in Qatar for a few years. They were...bored, I guess. And it was hot. Then they moved to Saudi Arabia, where they were...bored, I guess. And hot. Now they live in Kuwait, where they are...bored, I guess. And hot. It's quite the lifestyle.

(For the record, I don't think those countries are necessarily boring; I think it's more likely that my terminally-cool-in-his-own-mind 13 year old cousin would claim to being bored anywhere in the world.)

Question #25671 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,
I'm planning on taking student development 110 next semester and I was wondering if you knew anything about the student development classes. I enrolled in it because I'm terrible when it comes to studying for tests so I figured it might give me some good ideas for test taking, but are these classses geared more towards freshman? I don't want to be an old person in a class w/all freshies and I also don't want to be in a "special help" class if that's what the class really is. I looked at the course description online but it was fairly vague. Any advice?

-bored at work

A: Dear bored at work,
See Board Question #25022 and Board Question #25021.
Question #25668 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I frequently find it a problem that when approaching the freeway I rely on the current status of the "METER ON" light and then decide whether or not to proceed to the on ramp. However, should I decide that surface streets would be faster and pass the on ramp, I glance to the freeway and notice that 1. the meter IS on: a steady stream of green light, and 2. the freeway is absolutely NOT crowded. But at this point, the opportunity has passed me by-- or rather I've passed it by, literally.
The question I have is regarding the use of "METER ON" lights. Who/what is responsible for turning it on? Why do they even go on if they are just going to stay green?

-Your Mom's a Meter

A: Dear We've had a lot of mom questions recently,

After searching through UDOT (Utah Department of Transportation) online, I found this great site. Its called CommuterLink and "is made up of approximately 200 closed-circuit TV cameras along roadways, congestion detectors that track traffic speeds and patterns, dozens of Electronic Roadway Signs (ERS), 600 computerized traffic signal controls, ramp metering devices and multiple weather sensors. Operators at the TOC (Traffic Operations Center) gather real-time information from this equipment to help them manage and improve the flow of traffic on Utah's highways and major surface roads"

The site above allows you to access road and freeway pictures and other traffic data taken from cameras all over the Salt Lake, Ogden, Park City, and Provo area. It can list travel times, temperature, and additional alerts. Quite the handy tool that I will definitely be using from now on!

Ok, ok, back to your question. Upon selecting Ramp Metering this is what it has to say:
"Ramp metering uses sensors and traffic signals at freeway entrances to manage how many and how quickly cars enter the freeway. When traffic is heavy, ramp meters allow fewer cars onto the freeway, decreasing additional congestion. CommuterLink currently employs 24 ramp meters that help save commuters an estimated $4 million annually in time and fuel."

So it would seem that the metering is a mix between the TOC operators and an automated process. The times you see it on when there is no traffic could be a warning or a hint that heavier traffic is approaching. This seems understandable as the operators would be able to see what was coming with the different video monitors.

Well I hope this helps. Happy driving!

Question #25667 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

The geek test:


What is your score?


A: Dear 28,

I'm sad to say I actually took the time to link to that. I will confess that towards the end I skimmed most of it.

Still, I'm at 2.95858%. Apparently I'm a poser.


- Lavish
A: Dear Total Geek,

That was a long test. I scored 16.76529%. So I'm just a geek. Mainly because of movies I've watched, books I've read, I browse the dictionary for fun, I like word games, I've plotted world domination, and played Risk all the way to the end.

-Wilhelmina Wafflewitz
A: My Dearest Percent Score,

I was very lenient, and checked every box that somehow applied to me, or in other words I stretched the truth. I scored: 6.50888% - Poser

-The Right Reverend Rusky Roo
A: Dear 28.40237%,

I'm a Total Geek. (28.79684%)

Favorite question: Do you know the names of 3 temperature scales (and the H2O freezing/boiling points of each)?

3? Try 5. (OK, I don't know the freezing and boiling points in Rankine offhand, but I could figure them out pretty quickly. And that makes me even geekier.)

- Katya the librarian / linguist / Trekkie / physics chick
A: Dear 28.40237%,

43.3925% - Major Geek
Is it bad that I'm awfully proud of that?

A: Dear Geekie:

I'm at an 11.27564% level of geekiness.


Question #25666 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What are the best things for a me, a junior level transfer student, to bring to the Y-view appartments? Games, like The Illuminati and Settlers of Catan? Appliances, like a blender or an ice cream maker? Perhaps man-eating worm repellant...

- Darcy

A: Dear (Mr.?) Darcy,

Ear plugs - your gonna need them for all those freshman running around.

According to http://www.byu.edu/oncampushousing/residence_halls/wyview_park.html, the kitchen is only equipped with a fridge, a stove, an oven, and a microwave. My only advice is to make sure you have a George Foreman grill, maybe even two. Quick, easy, and the falsed assurance that you are eating healthy. Honestly though they really do everything. A roommate or myself use it every single day.

As for entertainment, my roommate this past year brought season 1 of MacGyver that he got as a birthday present. It was always a hit and became quite the tradition in our apartment.

- the newbie

A: Dear Darcy,

I would bring games, and anything else that would bring entertainment. There will be times that you want those things around to entertain yourself and your friends.

Question #25665 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I am looking at having a wedding reception in the Provo area (or possibly the Highland area) but I am not from around here and am feeling overwhelmed by all of the possibilites. Do any of you have any suggestions for places that would be really inexpensive to have it at? I am on a pretty tight budget but want to avoid having it in a cultural hall if possible.

- It is short notice, too... Getting married in August.

A: Dear August Wedding,

These are only suggestions from others who have held receptions in this area. I cannot guarantee availability, and/or cost of the place, but my guess is that the more expensive the place, the less decorating you need to do.

Provo Convention Center... off west center street, it apparently has marble, etc. in it, and if you have any hook-up's with the city, you can get it very inexpensively. Also has attached covered parking.

Other place: Country Club off University Parkway. A friend had a reception at a country club in the east coast, and they have good packages.

Up the canyons a bit, try asking about the BYU lodges, and see whether or not they're open. They would need more decoration, but pretty.

Other ideas: Try renting some time at the Provo Library main ballroom, Wilk ballroom or Garden Court, the Skyroom, or Museum of Art. You may be able to hold an outdoor reception at the JFSB courtyard, though I don't know whether or not it would be allowed... always check with these buildings first!

Reception centers... There are some off the main roads near grocery stores like Smith's and off Freedom, I believe. Use your yellowpages!

If they'd allow it: Utah County Courthouse off Center Street is gorgeous on the inside, if not a little snug. But, if they're willing, no decorations required other than maybe some bows and tulle.

Any good-sized hotel carries packages for weddings, though probably not cheap.

If you want, you could rent out a restaurant or part of a restaurant for the evening (Ottavio's, Tucano's, Chef's Table, etc. There are also local barns built specifically for events, or even the Springville Art Museum. Large museums are usually awesome for receptions, or else older historic houses.

And yes, worst comes to worst, there's always stake centers...

Trying to be helpful and possibly? maybe? not? succeeding,
The Last Line

PS. Hopefully this isn't too cheesy for you, but you could (maybe) reserve one of the upstairs 3rd floor Wilk rooms, and get BYU Dining Services to cater it... perhaps kind of pricey, but good food, beautiful decorations, etc.

And if yo want a small receptions, there's always the President's dining room in the Wilk, or the Visitor's Center, too.
Question #25664 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

So there's this bear. A brigand bear. He broke into the kitchen of a girls camp and ate unknown quantities of uncooked rice. How much will the rice expand, in-bear? Will the bear's stomach strech with the rice, or...not?

- Darcy

A: Dear Darcy,

If I were bear in a girls camp kitchen, I know I definitely wouldn't choose uncooked rice to snack on. However, I asked my dad (who's a doctor) what would happen if someone ate a bunch of uncooked rice.
Tangerine: Dad, what would happen if someone ate a bunch of uncooked rice? Would it swell up in their stomach?
Tangerine's Dad: Yes, it would.
Tangerine: How much?
Tangerine's Dad: Not too much. Not as much as it would if it were cooked.
Now, since you say that this bear ate "unknown quantities" of rice, I can't tell you whether or not his stomach would stretch. Obviously if he completely filled his stomach with uncooked rice, his stomach would stretch a bit, but if he only filled it halfway, he'd probably have no problem.

As for me, I'd choose chips or cookies over uncooked rice any day.

Question #25660 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

When toothpaste is dispensed from the tube, how does it stay in lines?

- Tooth Brusher

A: Dear Tooth Brusher,

Basically, the tooth paste is put into the tube in stripes, so it generally comes out in stripes (until the very end of the tube). Some tooth pastes also use special packaging. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toothpaste for more details.

Question #25658 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I love to bake! And I was wondering what is the deal with copyrights and recipes. Say I get a recipe from my favorite cookbook, that is copyrighted and I decide to remove the vanilla and add some almond extract, is that now my recipe, can I publish it and claim it as my own? If not how much of the recipe does have to change?

- Baker

A: Dear Baker,

The deal with copyrights and recipes, according to the U.S. Copyright Office , is that a listing of ingredients does not fall under copyright protection. It's more like the explanation, illustrations, and directions to make the recipe that are copyrighted. This becomes especially relevant when recipes they're combined as a collection in a cookbook. As for your individual situation, changing a couple ingredients in one recipe... Yeah, they probably won't even let you copyright one recipe unless you there's a substantial difference in the recipes.

If you still want to try, the link above will also lead you to the application you'd need to submit and other instructions.

- Lavish
Question #25657 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I know this question has little relevance to my life, but I have thought about it for years. So what happens in the ocean when lightning strikes? Water is a very good conductor of electricity but how far does the radius of electricity extend? And furthermore what happens to the living things in that area? Is there a radius of n number of feet that suddenly becomes covered with floating dead fish?
- Never gonna be a fisherman

A: Dear no perfect storm for you,

From USA Today's Answer Archive on Lightning Science:
Q: What happens to the fish in a lake or stream when it is struck by lightning?

A: This is an interesting question to which no one seems to have a really good answer. A few years ago I was doing a story for a magazine about lightning and tried to find an answer. The best answer I could come up with was from Ron Holle of the National Severe Storms Laboratory: "We've never had reports of a lot of dead fish floating to the surface after a lightning stroke." This indicates that the electrical charge must weaken fairly quickly after lightning hits the water, he said. The assumption is that the charge spreads out as an expanding sphere. In this case the charge would weaken rapidly as the area of the sphere increases.
See also this page.

- Katya
Question #25643 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Is there anyway to remove or prevent pilling between layers of cloth? I have several shirts that have a double layer in front (sewn at all edges), and they get little pills in between the layers. Mostly they're not really visible, but in certain places, they make little undesirable bumps that look like I'm wearing something bumpy under the shirt...and it's annoying.

I've read that normally pills just fall off, and I know that there are silly pill-shaving machines. But the only thing I've been able to do so far is try to get hold of each little ball through opposite sides of the fabric and try to work it down to a less-conspicuous area. Do you have any better suggestions?

- Shirt Wearer (AKA Public Servant)

A: Dear Shirt Wearer,

Short of cutting open the shirt to remove the pills, it looks like you're out of options. Pilling is caused by cloth rubbing against something else, creating small balls of fiber out of the material. It sounds like the two layers of cloth in your shirt are just rubbing together slightly, which is enough to cause pills. If you can find a way to prevent that from happening, you can prevent pills from forming.

I wish I had a better solution for you, but to my knowledge, none exist.

- Optimistic.
A: Dear Shirt Wearer,

The amount a fabric pills has to do with the length of the fibers in the thread of the cloth. Shorter fibers = more pilling. Higher quality shirts are made of cloth with longer fibers, so they're less likely to pill. (Of course, this doesn't help you in your current situation, but it can help you prevent that situation in the future.)

- Katya
Question #25630 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I came across an interesting problem. Nothing major. Where is it indicated that Alma is the narrator in Alma chapter 29? The Chapters before it are in the third person. The commentaries I have looked at say it is Alma the Younger, but based on the context of the surrounding few chapters, it seems that it's actually Ammon speaking. Ideas?

-Man, eating worm

A: Dear eating worm,

I never took thought of the question you posed. I had to do some searching, but I found this at a website.
This is an inserted soliloquy by Alma. Since the rest of the material appears to come from Ammon's records, the placing of this speech and the locator indicates a change in source material. It is much more likely that Mormon found this discourse in Alma's record than that it would have been found with Ammon's. It is clearly related to this occasion of the meeting of the old friends, but the sources and speakers are different. Mormon inserts the speech here with no introduction whatsoever. He has concluded the basic story of the mission of the sons of Mosiah, and has given his typical historical introduction. Then we get this speech with no introduction.

Most of the time we have seen Mormon create a new chapter when he switches sources, or inserts a speech from a different speaker. Here we learn that these guidelines that we can deduce were not hard rules. The content of Alma's soliloquy clearly belongs with the story of the sons of Mosiah, and so he includes it here. Nevertheless, we may still presume that it is a different source from the abrupt addition. While there is no real proof of they hypothesis, it is almost as though he finished with the account of the sons of Mosiah, and when he returned to Alma's sources, found this beautiful sermon, and decided to include it.
The statement makes sense. Hopefully this helps.

Question #25623 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I was walking with my friends on the provo river trail. As we went by the dam near state street, we looked down and saw these 3 HUGE fish. Without a fishing pole, we couldn't really get a better look at them. But I do remember some things.

First, they were really big. At least 18 inches, a good 3 pounds. They were fat, and had this nice purplish/lavander color to them. I have never seen anything like them, and I couldn't find anything on utah fish and game websites. Do you happen to know what they are?


-- Hooked of Phishes

A: Dear Worked for me,

After taking a look at http://www.utah.com/fish/provo_river.htm, it appears you probably saw a brown or rainbow trout.

Apparently, as Provo residents we should be quite proud of our fish. According to the site, here's why:

"The Provo River offers a premier blue ribbon trout fishery close to Utah's major cities. Brown and rainbow trout reach record lengths in the Provo, with a typical fish running 17 inches or bigger. One of the largest fish caught on the Provo was over 30 pounds! In some areas of the Provo, 7,500 trout are found per square mile."

That would explain the huge fish factor you saw. Next time bring your pole!

Eat your breakfast, its good for you,

Question #25613 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

It seems like I've had this reoccurring problem, when I find girls who seem interested in me and I'm interested in them I try to do things with them, however occasionally I get the feeling that they would rather spend their time with their friends of the female gender. I told a female friend of mine this problem and she told me that I shouldn't let things like that interfere. So I was wondering how does one go about not letting things like that interfere.

- Ignored for "the girl(s)"

A: Dear Ignored,

I can completely relate to you and understand what is going. There are so many times in my life that a fear concerning girls overtakes me and influences me to avoid her and not want to be around her. Now, how do we fix this? It takes a lot of courage to overcome it. This is what you do: go completely against it! The only way to replace a fear is by experiencing something new and replacing it! That is the only way. So the next time you experience those feelings, keep asking her out. Get the experience to know that they do want to be around you.

It won't be easy, but it can be done. In someways, it has to be done. Keep the courage and I am sure that you will do fine.

Question #25612 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Hi there,

I was reading once two years ago on either the HBL Library website news section or in the Daily Universe about some website USU had. The site is about agriculture and has definitions for different ag related terminology and even has pictures. I found the site then (2004-2005) but I can't find it now, can you? I think the site in question was either with USU's library or some kind of archive thing. I'm looking for either the article or the site referred to in the article.

- Still Looking

A: Dear Still Looking,

It sounds to me like you're referring to USU's "Encyclopedia of Animal Science." It's about agriculture, it defines terms, and, according to the description on the USU library website, it even has pictures. You can find the library description of this site here.

If I'm wrong, feel free to shoot us a follow-up question.

Question #25555 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

My Mormon friend recommended me to this site and I think its really neat. I myself am Protestant (Methodist) and I have a question regarding the Mormon views of gay marriage.

Why does the Mormon church encourage members to write to congress protesting gay marriage? I know the church is against homosexuality and gay marriage, but don't the church standards apply to only the members? How does the legalization of gay marriage outside of the church affect the church itself?


-The Protestant

A: Dear The Protestant,

I hope I can sufficiently and accurately answer this question. Here goes.

First, I am not an official Church spokesperson. Nor do I play one on TV, the movies, radio programs or the Board. Therefore, whatever I say is not "official" church policy/doctrine/etc. I am going to give what I and most people believe are the reasons. They may very well be the reasons, but I can in no way even suggest that they are official.

You say that you know that the LDS church opposes homosexuality and gay marriage, but I want to make sure that you know why the LDS church is so opposed to homosexuality before I try to answer your questions.

When it comes to the Church's reasons for their stance, I don't think it can be more succinctly that it is in the document "The Family: A Proclamation to the World" that was drafted by the 15 leaders that make up the two highest governing bodies in our church: The church president, whom we know and believe to be a prophet of God like Peter or Moses, and his counselors and then the quorum of the twelve apostles. In that document, there is this paragraph:
The family is ordained of God. Marriage between man and woman is essential to His eternal plan. Children are entitled to birth within the bonds of matrimony, and to be reared by a father and a mother who honor marital vows with complete fidelity. Happiness in family life is most likely to be achieved when founded upon the teachings of the Lord Jesus Christ. Successful marriages and families are established and maintained on principles of faith, prayer, repentance, forgiveness, respect, love, compassion, work, and wholesome recreational activities. By divine design, fathers are to preside over their families in love and righteousness and are responsible to provide the necessities of life and protection for their families. Mothers are primarily responsible for the nurture of their children. In these sacred responsibilities, fathers and mothers are obligated to help one another as equal partners. Disability, death, or other circumstances may necessitate individual adaptation. Extended families should lend support when needed.
The strength and firmness of how that sentiment is expressed will hopefully give you an idea of how central and vital this principle is. If the family as described above is ordained of God, then anything else is a perversion of God's divine plan and thus is not sanctioned or allowed under His law. It is immoral. I am not saying that a woman whose husband is killed or vice versa and now has to raise their family as a single parent is immoral. They were doing their best to follow God's law and circumstances changed. I am referring to people who intentionally twist what God has commanded. This is why the church strongly discourages single women from becoming pregnant by any means, sexual or not, and discourages single men and women from adopting. Those children are entitled to both a father and a mother which perversions cannot offer. Gay marriage would certainly fall under this. The document goes on to explain a bit more about why we oppose such things so vehemently:
We warn that individuals who violate covenants of chastity, who abuse spouse or offspring, or who fail to fulfill family responsibilities will one day stand accountable before God. Further, we warn that the disintegration of the family will bring upon individuals, communities, and nations the calamities foretold by ancient and modern prophets.
Does this help you to understand why the members of the LDS church are so strongly opposed to homosexuality? I hope it does. As for why we were recently encouraged to write our senators, well, we have been encouraged to write our political leaders about these issues for a long while now, not just since a few weeks ago. From the same document as above:
We call upon responsible citizens and officers of government everywhere to promote those measures designed to maintain and strengthen the family as the fundamental unit of society.
With that basis of understanding, now we can move on to why we advocate such activism when others think we should keep our morality to ourselves.

There is a social misconception called moral relativity that is pervasive throughout the world. It is the idea that morality is relative. It is the idea that because I believe something is wrong doesn't actually mean it is wrong for other people. In essence, this is what your question boils down to. Our stand against homosexuality and gay marriage isn't a "standard" so much as it is an eternal truth, a moral that is not subject to our opinions.

Think of it this way. As a Christian, you believe that it is wrong to murder someone, correct? Do you extend that moral to others? Is murdering a violation of a constant moral that applies to everyone? If you follow the same logic that you are applying to our church in the issue of homosexual marriage, you wouldn't believe that it applies to everyone. You would say that you believe it is wrong, but who are you to impose your beliefs on other people. Isn't it a Judeo-Christian standard that should only apply to Judeo-Christians?

This is the trap of moral relativity. You concede that your God only exists as far as your beliefs extend. We believe that there is one God and that his laws are eternal. Marriage being between a man and woman is an eternal principle of God's laws and not something that we only people in His (the LDS church) are obligated to obey.

Now don't get me wrong. I am not a homophobe or a gay-hater or whatever you prefer to call it. We've had writers on the Board who struggle with same sex attraction and one of my best friends in high school is gay. However, you can love/approve of/respect the person without necessarily loving/approving of/respecting what they choose to do. Or as it is much more succinctly put: Love the sinner, Hate the sin.

What is truly sad to me is that most Christians are turning to accept homosexuality as an appropriate lifestyle with some church's even approving of gay bishops. Our stance against homosexuality is not just based on our doctrine. It is even mentioned in the King James Bible. In Leviticus 18, the same chapter that God outlaws marrying your parent or sibling and that having sexual relations with beasts is wrong, he tells Moses "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination." Can God be any clearer? Some people will say that the chapter quoted is Old Testament and we aren't bound under anything in the Old Testament. If that is true, than everything else condemned in that chapter (beastiality and incest) should be just as fine.

If you have any other questions about why someone would oppose gay marriage, check out http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1082190/posts or http://www.family.org/cforum/extras/a0032427.cfm.

I hope all this has helped you to understand our position a bit better. Feel free to submit another again if you need further clarification or have another question.

-Pa Grape
Question #25548 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

I attended guitars unplugged last semester and noticed that they were selling special compilation cds of all of the artists and the songs they performed for five bucks. At the time, I didn't have five bucks. I also didn't have the patience to work my way through the crowded hallways of the mariott center to a desk that sold the cds. In retrospect, I have come to realize that this was a mistake, because I really liked most of the artists and five bucks is a good deal for even a crappy cd. Is there any way I can procure a copy now, or will my momentary lack of a certain virtue (and five bucks) haunt me forever?

- streak free shine

A: Dear streak free shine,

Never fear! There is no need to be haunted by the mistake of not purchasing the beloved cd anymore. I just checked myself and there are still 9 copies available on the bottom floor of the BYU bookstore. It appears your delayed purchase has even turned into a profit, to the tune of 23 cents as the cd's are now only $4.49 plus tax. Don't let this deal pass you by twice. And don't worry, it didn't appear that there was a line either.

Eat your breakfast, its good for you,
Question #25500 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What are the lyrics to the song "Drink Gypsy" from the "Inspector General" starring Danny Kaye?

-gypsy who forgot how to drink

A: Dear Gypsy,

I'm fairly certain that this is how it goes. Sorry I had to just write some of it phonetically Those parts are either nonsense, or in some language that I don't know:

Whisking through the whispering woods on a wild Romany pony
With a yak yak yak, and a yak se drak, and a yak se drak se donye.
Rides the gypsy
The gypsy
The gee-eee-eee-ipsy
The gip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ip-ipsy.
The world thinks him careless and tipsy and free
But oh, the poor gypsy (scream, squeak, gasp)
His lot is not what it ought to be. For...
Night and day and day and night there's a man they're sick of obeying
With a whip
In his hand.
Over gypsy he stand.
And this is what he is saying:
Um. Hum. Hmm.
Play gypsy, sing gypsy, dance gypsy, laugh gypsy, cry gypsy, live gypsy, die gypsy
Drink to goodbyes and drink to hellos.
Drink to the open; drink to the closed.
Drink to me only with thine eyes, and I will drink with my nose.
And so we drink!
But first we sing.

-Pause while Danny Kaye teaches chorus to his audience. It consists of "zoom," "shtock, shtock," and "Ha!Ha!Ha!" and unintelligible something that my dad said was French.-

Play, gypsy, sing gypsy, dance gypsy, leap gypsy, dream gypsy, slide gypsy, slink gypsy
And so we drink.
But first we play.

-Pause while Danny Kaye plays violin-

Play gypsy, sing gypsy, dance gypsy, smile gypsy, wink gypsy, blink gypsy, shrink gypsy
And so we drink.
But first we dance.

-Pause while Danny Kaye does flaming sword dance-

And so we drink
To everyone we admire.
To the girl who sets your heart a glow and sets your heart on...FIRE!
And so we drink!


Question #25437 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

A programming question for you.

Obviously, "Antitrust" is one of the greatest movies ever made for the non-3l1t3. However, any programmer knows that they are using very basic HTML in the opening credits.

What does the html document in the opening credits become when written out?

What does "It's not in the code, it's in the bans" mean?


A: Dear Motionite,

If I had gotten ahold of the movie, I would have been able to answer this sooner. As it is, someone transcribed the HTML for me so I could "interpret" it.

Here's the code:
<area shape="rect" coords="305,9,335,38">

<area shape="rect" coords="15,9,75,38" href=
<area shape="rect" coords="76,9,144,38" href="/News/">
<area shape="rect" coords="202,9,222,38" href="/Downloads/">
<area shape="rect" coords="253,9,304,40" href="/Support/">
<area shape="rect" coords="305,9,335,38" href="/Contact/">
<area shape="rect" coords="346,9,438,37" href="/Help/">

This first block is the ending to an image map which appears to be within an iframe. Nothing special here, except that it is a long image being mapped as a menu bar. May not be the best programming choice, either.

<table width="100%" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0">
<tr bgcolor="#FFFFCC">
<td width="170" valign="top"><img src="../images/main.gif" width=>
<td align="left" width="420">
<table border="0" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="0" width="420">

After ending a previous table, a new table is being started here. It has a bright teal-green background to its first row, which has an image to main.gif and then starts another table that is 420 pixels wide. Again, nothing special.

As for the quote, it's just some writer trying to make his character sound smarter then everyone else. It probably has something to do with the problem being the signal itself and not the code operating the signal.

It's a great movie, though. Hope you enjoyed it!

Question #25421 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

What are the most competitive (hard to get into) majors at BYU? What about the least competitive? (no difficulty getting into the program, etc.) Thanks,

- Just Curious

A: Dear Just Curious,

Your question is a bit ambiguous. Do you mean which majors have the lowest rate of acceptance (as in, which one turns down the most applicants) or which major requires the highest GPA? The latter is a bit difficult to guage as not all majors that you have to apply to have academic requirements.

I guess I'll have to go with the first one of number of applicants accepted out of total number of applicants.

Here are all the majors that require you to be accepted as well as the percentage of students who applied and were accepted (ratios are [accepted]/[applied])*:

Bioinformatics** 100%

Neuroscience** 100%

Information Technology: 17/17 100%

English Teaching 36/37 97.29%

Early Childhood Education 86/89 96.62%

Elementary Education 286/299 95.65%

Information Systems 93/98 94.89%

Mechanical Engineering 71/76 93.42%

Computer/Electrical Engineering - 60/65 92.3%

Spanish Teaching 19/22 86.36%

Management 806/942 85.56%

Special Education 103/121 85.12%

Social Science Teaching 83/99 83.83%

Industrial Design 3 levels pro: 19/23 82.6%

Accounting (265/324) 81.79%

Clinical Laboratory Science 16/20 80%

Technology Teacher Education: 20/26 76.92%

Dance Education 8/11 72.72%

Construction Management 48/67 71.64%

Dance 14/20 70%

Social Work 40/60 66.66%

Dietetics 40/62 64.51%

Spanish Translation 25/39 64.10%

Physical Education Teaching/Coaching (K-12) 25/40 62.5%

Studio Arts 60/102 58.82%

Art Education (K-12) 20/35 57.14%

Nursing 128/230 55.65%

Facilities Management 10/18 55.55%

Acting 12/35 34.28%

Animation 23/68 33.82%

Music*** 225/675 33.33%

Photography 20/78 25.64%

Illustration 20/84 23.8%

Graphic Design 20/85 23.52%

Music Dance Theater 14/87 16.09%

Visual Arts 4/117 3.41%

Now, I should point out that this isn't necessarily a great way to judge the difficulty of the programs. First of all, some programs will tell you to not even apply if you don't meet certain criteria (such as having no worse than an A- in certain courses) even if the official criteria for appplication is much lower. Nursing is a prime, but not a sole, example of this.

Also, just because a major is easy to get into, say Bioinformatics, that doesn't mean that the major is easy. The person I spoke with said tha Bioinformatics has a very high attrition rate.

All that said, there are the majors ranked with the "easiest" to get into at the top and the hardest at the bottom.

Sorry for the delay, but actually getting all that info from the different schools turned out to be a "major" pain.

-Pa Grape with the help of Lavish, Mojoschmoe, Resilient, Tangerine, Wilhelmina Wafflewitz, de novo, and Lady Last Line

*Unfortunately, the department over Civil Engineering did not return multiple phone calls, so the Civil Engineering stats are missing from the list.

**These majors only require that you pass the prerequisit classes with a C+ or better for admittance. There is no other application other than passing the classes.

***This data is an estimate for all majors in the school of music except for Music Dance Theater. The School of Music was unable to provide specifics on applicants to individual majors in their school.
Question #25246 posted on 06/12/2006 3:01 a.m.

Dear 100 Hour Board,

Suppose that Superman decided to go flying one day, but he didn't want anyone on the ground to see him. How far up would he have to fly to be out of sight?

- pippin galadriel moonchild

A: Dear pgm,

There are a few ways to approach this question. One is to look at visibility conditions as they depend on weather and location. In very clear arctic air, visibility can be as much as 100 km. In an area with a lot of smog, the visibility will be much worse, and fog and storms can reduce visibility to 100 meters or less. So Superman's ability to avoid visual detection would depend in part on where he was flying and what the weather was like that day.

Another factor to take into account is the ability of the human eye to resolve detail. Wikipedia informs me that the angular resolution of the human eye is 30-60 cm at a distance of 1 km. Assuming the man of steel is around 180 cm tall, he would have to be around 6 km away to be too small for the eye to resolve. (Of course, the ability to resolve the detail of something isn't quite the same to the ability to see it, but we can take it as a rough estimate.)

Other factors involved would be the contrast between him and the sky, the amount of light shining on him, and the amount of light being emitted by him (if any). Probably the best course of action would be to ditch the primary colors for something darker, and fly at night. In the fog. Over Los Angeles.

- the physics chick